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5 Easy Ways To Reduce Sugar Intake

Article written by Annie Skidmore- BSc Sport & Exercise Science Student

HOW MUCH SUGAR DO I NEED TO EAT?

Sugar is a type of carbohydrate that can be natural or added to food. Free or simple sugars are those added by the manufacturer, cook or consumer and naturally occurring in honey, syrups, and fruit juices [1]. It is these free sugars that need to be controlled in the diet to prevent poor health and maintain a balanced diet. Free sugar should only contribute to <10% but ideally <5% of total calorie intake [1].  This ensures a high-quality diet still rich in nutrients but reduces dental issues.

However, sugar is NOT all bad. Natural sugar derived from grains, whole fruits, vegetables, and milk (complex carbohydrates) does not contribute to poor dental health, due to the high fibre and water content and protective components [2].

THE ROLE OF SUGAR

Sugar is an essential component of the diet needed in moderation to maintain blood sugar levels – especially when exercising. Carbohydrates are required to fuel high-intensity exercise and are necessary post-exercise to refuel quickly and effectively [3]. Carbohydrates in the form of natural sugars would prevent sharp rises in sugar levels however, post-exercise free, simple sugars may be required to elevate potentially very low blood sugar levels and prevent any associated symptoms of low blood sugar. For instance, simple sugars in the form of sweets, cereal or sugary drinks are needed to increase blood sugar levels quickly and prevent any stomach pains when eaten before/during exercise [4].

EFFECTS OF TOO MUCH SUGAR

High sugar intake produces many negative effects including increased risk of tooth decay/poor dental hygiene [5]. Individuals consuming the recommended WHO free sugar intake have a reduced risk of poor dental health. High free sugar intake e.g., from beverages contributes to weight gain, overweight and obesity [6]. Obesity is a rising global problem with a large increase in childhood and adolescent obesity over the last 40 years [7]. Increased sugar consumption can contribute to health conditions such as Type 2 diabetes and impact mental health, sleep and cause addictive, compulsive eating behaviours [8]. Consumption of carbohydrates in the form of sugar is associated with higher levels of tiredness within the first 30 minutes and reduced alertness within the first 60 minutes of eating and does not contribute to positive moods [9]. Therefore, excess consumption of sugar will exaggerate these negative responses.

5 TOP TIPS TO REDUCE SUGAR INTAKE

  1. REPLACE HIGH SUGARY ENERGY DRINKS WITH DIET ALTERNATIVES- consuming more water and replacing high sugar drinks with diet or reduced sugar versions will help control blood glucose levels whilst still being satisfied.
  2. REPLACE SUGARY SNACKS FOR FRUIT – this satisfies your sweet tooth but uses natural sugar that decreases spikes in blood glucose levels, preventing sugar highs/lows, and the high fibre content keeps you fuller for longer.
  3. USE REDUCED SUGAR PRODUCTS – e.g., low sugar snacks, condiments, and seasonings.
  4. REPLACE ARTIFICAL SUGAR WITH NATURAL SUGAR – e.g., honey in tea or on wholemeal toast.
  5. USE FRESH INGREDIENTS – when making food use fresh, local ingredients as much as possible as this reduces the number of added sugars, artificial sweeteners & increases nutritional value of the dish.

 

 

References:

[1] World Health Organization, World health Organization. Sugars intake for adults and children. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. 2015 Mar:49.

[2] Moynihan P. Sugars and dental caries: evidence for setting a recommended threshold for intake. Advances in Nutrition. 2016 Jan;7(1):149-56.

[3] Mul JD, Stanford KI, Hirshman MF, Goodyear LJ. Exercise and regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Progress in molecular biology and translational science. 2015 Jan 1;135:17-37.

[4] https://www.nutrition.org.uk/

[5] Breda J, Jewell J, Keller A. The importance of the world health organization sugar guidelines for dental health and obesity prevention. Caries research. 2019;53(2):149-52.

[6] Keller A, Bucher Della Torre S. Sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity among children and adolescents: a review of systematic literature reviews. Childhood Obesity. 2015 Aug 1;11(4):338-46.

[7] Abarca-Gómez L, Abdeen ZA, Hamid ZA, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Acosta-Cazares B, Acuin C, Adams RJ, Aekplakorn W, Afsana K, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Agyemang C. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128· 9 million children, adolescents, and adults. The Lancet. 2017 Dec 16;390(10113):2627-42.

[8] Freeman CR, Zehra A, Ramirez V, Wiers CE, Volkow ND, Wang GJ. Impact of sugar on the body, brain, and behavior. Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 2018 Jun 1;23:2255-66.

[9] Mantantzis K, Schlaghecken F, Sünram-Lea SI, Maylor EA. Sugar rush or sugar crash? A meta-analysis of carbohydrate effects on mood. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2019 Jun 1;101:45-67.

 

Image By David Dewitt

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